How to choose a compatibilizer?
Another name for compatibilizer is compatibilizer. The compatibility of various polymers is the key to plastic blending, modification, and alloying, and achieving good compatibility is achieved by adding the right quantity of a compatibilizer.
It is crucial to understand how to choose the compatibilizer properly, maximize the performance of various components, and avoid product failure during final usage.
The compatibilizer may be classified into two types: non-reactive compatibilizer and reactive compatibilizer, depending on how the matrix polymers interact with one another.
Compatibilizer without reaction
In the context of mixing polymers, non-reactive compatibilizers are defined as copolymers without reactive genes and not taking part in chemical processes.
From a structural perspective, block copolymers, graft copolymers, or random copolymers, such EAA, EEA, EVA, CPE, SEBS, etc., make up the majority of non-reactive compatibilizers.
But more of this type of compatibilizer has to be added.
The reactive compatibilizer primarily increases compatibility by forming a chemical link with the raw polymer during mixing through its own reactive group.
It typically belongs to the macromolecular class, and its active functional group might be either on the side chain or at the end of the molecule. At least one macromolecular matrix in the mix system can share its macromolecular main chain or have a separate one. Its macromolecular main chain, however, ought to be more compatible with at least one polymer matrix in the mix system under varied conditions.
This type of compatibilizer has the benefit of having a high action efficiency and requiring little addition. The drawback is that both the side reaction and the necessary mixing conditions have high requirements.
Principal classes and variations
Type of cyclic anhydride (MAH)
The most popular kind of reactive compatibilizers right now are those of the cyclic anhydride type. Maleic anhydride, which is grafted on polyolefin compatibilizers at a rate of typically 0.8% to 1.0%, is one of them and is mostly used to modify polyolefin plastics. It is a maleic anhydride-grafting copolymerization compatibilizer that uses PS as the basis or grafts maleic anhydride onto PS. It may be used to modify, mix, or alloy PA/PC, ABS/GF, and PA/ABS. The usual dose is between 5% and 8%.
Type of carboxylic acid
The acrylic type compatibilizer stands in for carboxylic acids as a product. The usage of acrylic acid is similar to that of maleic anhydride and often involves grafting it onto polyolefin resin.
By grafting and copolymerizing epoxy resins or compounds with epoxy groups and other polymers, epoxy reactive compatibilizers are created. A good compatibilizing effect may be achieved by this form of reactive compatibilizer. Small additions of Nordson reactive compatibilizer NX-001, between 2% and 4%, can significantly increase compatibility.
Type of Oxazoline
With a grafting rate of 1%, PS grafted with oxazoline, also known as RPS, is a pretty significant compatibilizer. It is distinguished by a broad variety of uses and has the ability to generate graft copolymers through reactions with carbonyl, anhydride, and epoxy groups in addition to conventional amino or carboxyl-containing polymers. In PS, other technical plastics, or modified polyolefin resins, it can thus be employed. Furthermore, it can be compatibilized "in situ" for direct use in plastic modification, blending and alloying.
Type of imide
The imide type of polyacrylate, which has undergone modification, is mostly appropriate for engineering plastic alloys or blends like PA/PO, PC/PO, and PA/PC.
Type of isocyanate
M-isopropenyl-2,2-dimethylbenzoyl isocyanate is the composition. It may be applied to engineering polymeric alloys that have carboxyl and amino groups.
Low molecular weight
Low-molecular-weight compatibilizers are reactive compounds that react with other compounds to form organic and inorganic compounds of plastic alloys. They are based on reactive monomers and low-molecular-weight polymers. Some of these compounds can be compatible with one component of the plastic synthesis process.
In this approach, not only is the production of plastic composites streamlined, but the cost and accessibility of the raw materials are also greatly reduced. The utilization of a mixing extruder is a crucial component in the manufacturing of low molecular compatibilizers, despite the comparatively high extruder requirements.